Policy of Journal

POLICY OF JOURNAL OF KHYBER COLLEGE OF DENTISTRY

SOURCE OF MANUSCRIPT
The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will entertain the manuscript from the all
the specialties of dentistry, allied specialties and basic dental sciences.
PUBLICATION CALANENDAR
The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will be published quarterly
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
1. EDITORIAL POLICY
JKCD is the official Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry. The journal is a peer-
reviewed, dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge/ information on all sciences
relevant to dentistry, oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. JKCD aims
to be the leading publication in its field and provides a forum for the exchange of information
about new and significant research in Dentistry in Pakistan and throughout the world. The
Journal will publish peer-reviewed research articles, clinical developments, clinical opinions
and treatments as well as other key issues of relevance to Dentistry. It also aims to motivate
the conduct and publication of original research in oral health sciences in Pakistan, to
provide a source of continuing dental education, and to circulate such information in Pakistan
and other parts of the world. The Journal would appeal to a substantial international
readership seeking to keep up-to-date with research and developments in oral health
sciences, with an emphasis on new knowledge and innovations. It would provide clinicians,
scientists and students of dentistry with a comprehensive periodical published twice a year,
publishing original research papers, reviews, evidence base clinical cases, short
communications, letters to the editor and guest editorials.
2- MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry follows the uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals as approved by the International Committee of
Medical Journal Editors as updated in Oct. 2004 and available at www.icmje.orgOnly those
manuscripts are accepted which have not been published previously or submitted elsewhere
for publication. Two hard copies and a soft copy (MS Word format) of manuscript, typed
double spaced on one side of A-4 size paper with at least one inch margins all around and all
pages numbered should be sent to “The Honorary Editor, JKCD, Khyber College of Dentistry,
University Campus, Peshawar, Khyber Pukhthunkhwa, Pakistan”. Tables and illustrations
should be typed and drawn on separate pages. A covering letter, containing the undertaking
(Annexure-1), certifying the originality of the work and that it is neither published nor
submitted for publication elsewhere, duly signed by the principal author should accompany
the manuscript. Authors from abroad can also submit their manuscript electronically to
“jkcd.y2010@gmail.com”. Such manuscripts along with tables and references must be sent
as a MS word document but graphics have to be attached as jpeg files.

3- FORMAT REQUIREMENTS
All Manuscripts of original research should contain the following sections:
a. Title page:
Page 1 of the manuscript should include the title of the article and the name(s) of the
authors with the sequence to appear in print, degrees, title/designation, name of the
department and institutional affiliation of each author. The person responsible for future
enquiry should be identified and his address for correspondence along with telephone
number and E-mail address, given. Acknowledgements to be included should also be given
on this page.
b. Abstracts:
Page 2 of the manuscripts should contain a maximum of 250 words as structured
abstract i.e. Objective(s), Materials and Methods, Results and Conclusion. Abstract for
evidence based clinical case and literature reviews need not be structured.
c. Key words:
A list of 3-6 key words should also be included at the bottom of the abstract page.
d. Abbreviations:
Standard abbreviations should be used only. Full word for each abbreviation should
be given, the first time it is used in the text. Avoid abbreviations in the Title and Abstract.
d. Introduction:
Summarize the rationale and purpose of the study. It should neither review the subject
extensively nor should it have data or conclusion. Give only pertinent references and clearly
state the working hypothesis.
e. Materials and Method:
Precisely describe how the study was carried out so that the reader can easily
comprehend the method used. Provide information about the sample (subjects, patients or
materials being studied) design of study and how it was executed. If a drug or material is
used, its generic name, dose and route of administration/ applications must be explained.
Indicate the statistical methods used and also specify any computer program used for
analysis of the data.
f. Results:
Results should be presented clearly as text, tables and illustrations. All the data given
in the tables and figures should not be repeated in the text. Only important observations
should be mention in the text, while reference to the table or figure number can be given for
less important findings.
g. Discussion
This should emphasize the present findings and its comparison with other relevant
studies. Do not repeat in detail the data or other material given in the introduction or results.
Point out the implication of the findings and the limitations of the study.

h. Conclusion(s)
Include a numeric listing of evidence based conclusions and should relate directly to
the aims and objectives of the study.
i. Tables:
Each of the tables should be on a separate page, must have a brief title, be on a
double space and should have an accompanying legend. Duplication of results given in
tables and in figures must be avoided.
j. Illustrations:
All graphics, drawings and photographs are labelled as figures and should be
consecutively numbered. Each illustration must be on a separate page and must have a
caption. In case of photographs, write the figure number and caption at the back of each
photograph.
k. References:
The references must be written in Vancouver style, double-spaced and numbered as
they appear inthe text. The total number of references must not exceed 40 for original article
and 100 for review article. Provide complete information for each reference, including names
and initials of all authors when they are six or less. If there are more than six authors, list the
first six followed by “et al”. The authors name(s) and initials are followed by the title of the
article, the name of the journal abbreviated according to the style followed in Index Medicus,
year of publication, journal volume and number of the first and last pages e.g. Bashir U,
Hassan A, Arshad N. Cleidocranial Dysplasia. J Pak Dent Assoc, 2005; 14(3): 177-80.
Reference for a chapter or part of a book should have author name(s) and initials, full title of
the chapter or part, name of the editor(s), complete title of the book, city address, publisher,
year of publication and number of the first and last pages e.g. Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy
BM. Dental caries. A text book of oral pathology. 4th Ed. India: Saunders 1997; 406-11.
l. Ethics
When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures
followed were in accordance with the standards of institutional ethical committee on human
experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use
patient’s names, initials, or hospital numbers especially in illustrative material.
m. Units of Measurements:
Systems International (SI) units to be preferred where possible. Conventional units
can be given in parenthesis.
n. Drugs Names:
Generic names of drugs are preferred. Where essential, the brand names can be
given in parenthesis.
o. Permission:
Material taken from other sources must be accompanied by written statement from
both the author and the publisher giving permission for reproduction.

MANUSCRIPT RECEIVING AND TRACKING SYSTEM
The authors are requested to send three copies of the manuscript. Manuscripts must
be accompanied by a covering letter signed by all co authors. This must include 1)
information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the work
as defined earlier in this document; 2) a statement of financial or other relationships that
might lead to a conflict of interest; 3) a statement that the manuscript has been read and
approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this
document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents
honest work; and 4) the name, address, and telephone number of the corresponding author,
who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final
approval of the proofs. The letter should give any additional information that may be helpful
to the editor, such as the type of article in the particular journal that the manuscript
represents and whether the author(s) would be willing to meet the cost of reproducing colour
illustrations. The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permission to reproduce
published material, to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people, or to
name people for their contributions.
MANUSCRIPT PEER REVIEW SYSTEM
JKCD is a peer reviewed journal. All articles on receipt for publication are reviewed for
originality, relevance, statistical methods, significance, adequacy of documentation, reader
interest and composition. Manuscripts not submitted according to the instructions will be
returned to the author for correction prior to beginning the peer review process. All
manuscripts considered suitable for review are evaluated by a minimum of two members of
editorial board. The manuscript is then sent to two or more than two reviewers who may take
2-3 weeks to review the manuscript. Necessary comments of reviewers are conveyed back
to the authors. After necessary revision by the authors, the manuscripts are presented to the
editorial board for final decision about its publication The ultimate authority to accept or reject
the manuscript rests with\ the Editor. Revised manuscripts are judged on the adequacy of
responses to suggestions and criticisms made during the initial review. All accepted
manuscripts are subject to editing for scientific accuracy and clarity by the office of the Editor.
When the manuscripts is deemed fit for publication, letter of acceptance is issued to the
author. No article is rejected unless similar comments are received from at least two
reviewers. Rejected articles are returned back to authors.
Following is the policy regarding the roles of the reviewers.
a) To evaluate the manuscript critically and to make recommendation to the editor
regarding the suitability of the manuscript for publication in the Journal of Khyber
College of Dentistry.
b) To point out any potential conflict of interest.
c) Not to make derogatory remarks/comments about the manuscript and neither
communicate directly with the authors.
d) The editor will provide guidance to the reviewer regarding the evaluation by telephone,
fax, email and courier.
e) If the reviewer does not complete review on a timely basis, the editor will proceed with
the evaluation.
JOURNAL PRINTING SYSTEM

The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will be printed under the authority of the
publisher by Khyber Printers, Small Industrial State, Kohat Road, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tel:
(091) 2325196. Declaration of the printer and ISSN Number are attached as Annexure 2 and
3. Specification of the journal are as below:
 Title page- colour, art card 310 gram with A4 size.
 Normal pages- multicolour, mat paper 115 gram A4 size
PUBLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION
Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry is published on controlled circulation basis and
distributed among all the principal authors, co authors, members of the advisory board,
editorial board, peer reviewers, principals of all dental colleges, libraries of all dental
colleges, PMDC, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan. The copies of the journal
will be distributed by hand and through courier services.
The copyright is owned by JKCD. JKCD has the right to reproduce, transmit, publish
or distribute the contribution in the journal or otherwise. The publisher and the member(s) of
the editorial board cannot be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising
from the use of the information contained in this journal.
LINKS WITH OTHER SIMILLAR ORGANIZATION
ISSN (2220-2633)
ISSNe (2307-3934)
WHO Index Medicus [ PD.3/10(IMMER/PAK]
Recognised by PMDC ( Index Pakistan Number IP/0063)
AUDIT POLICY OF THE JOURNAL
Internal audit will be carried out by the account and audit department of Khyber College of
Dentistry, Peshawar. External audit will be conducted by the audit team of Finance
Department, Government of Khyber Pukhtunkhawa.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION POLICY
Editorial board will follow the journal guidelines of Pakistan Medical and Dental
Council regarding conflict resolution policy. These guidelines are reproduced below. Conflict
of interest for a given manuscript exists when a participant in the peer review and publication
process-author, reviewer, and editor-has ties to activities that could inappropriately influence
his or her judgment, whether or not judgment is in fact affected. Financial relationships with
industry (for example, through employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria,
expert testimony), either directly or through immediate family, are usually considered to be
the most important conflicts of interest. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such
as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion.
Public trust in the peer review process and the credibility of published articles depend
in part on how well conflict of interest is handled during writing, peer review, and editorial
decision making. Bias can often be identified and eliminated by careful attention to the
scientific methods and conclusions of the work. Financial relationships and their effects are
less easily detected than other conflicts of interest. Participants in peer review and
publication should disclose their conflicting interests, and the information should be made
available so that others can judge their effects for themselves. Because readers may be less

able to detect bias in review articles and editorials than in reports of original research, some
journals do not accept reviews and editorials from authors with a conflict of interest.
All participants in the peer review and publication process must disclose all
relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. Disclosure of
these relationships is particularly important in connection with editorials and review articles,
because bias can be more difficult to detect in those publications than in reports of original
research. Editors may use information disclosed in conflict of interest and financial interest
statements as a basis for editorial decisions. Editors should publish this information if they
believe it will be important to readers in judging the manuscript.
Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Individual Authors' Commitments
When authors submit a manuscript, whether an article or a letter, they are responsible
for disclosing all financial and personal relationships between themselves and others that
might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential
conflicts do or do not exist. Authors should do so in the manuscript on a conflict of interest
notification page that follows the title page, providing additional detail, if necessary, in the
accompanying cover letter. Investigators should disclose potential conflicts to study
participants, and should state in the manuscript whether they have done so.
Editors also need to decide when to publish information disclosed by authors about
potential conflicts. If doubt exists, it is best to err on the side of publication.
Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Project Support
Increasingly, biomedical studies receive funding from commercial firms, private
foundations, and government. The conditions of this funding have the potential to bias and
otherwise discredit the research.
Scientists have an ethical obligation to submit creditable research results for
publication. As the persons directly responsible for their work, researchers therefore should
not enter into agreements that interfere with their access to the data or their ability to analyze
the data independently, to prepare manuscripts, and to publish them. Authors should
describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis,
and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the report
for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so
state. Biases potentially introduced when sponsors are directly involved in research are
analogous to methodological biases of other sorts; some journals therefore choose to include
information about the sponsor's involvement in the methods section of the published paper.
If a study is funded by an agency with a proprietary or financial interest in the
outcome, editors may ask authors to sign a statement such as, ``I had full access to all of the
data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the
accuracy of the data analysis.'' Editors should be encouraged to review copies of the protocol
and/or contracts associated with project specific studies before accepting such studies for
publication. Editors may choose not to consider an article if a sponsor has asserted control
over the authors' right to publish.
Conflicts of Interest Related to Commitments of Editors, Journal Staff, or Reviewers
Editors should avoid selecting external peer reviewers with obvious potential conflicts
of interest, for example, those who work in the same department or institution as any of the
authors. Authors often provide editors with the names of persons they feel should not be

asked to review a manuscript because of potential conflicts of interest, usually professional.
When possible, authors should be asked to explain or justify their concerns; that information
is important to editors in deciding whether to honour such requests.
Reviewers must disclose to editors any conflicts of interest that could bias their
opinions of the manuscript, and they should disqualify themselves from reviewing specific
manuscripts if they believe such disqualification would be appropriate. As in the case of
authors, silence on the part of reviewers concerning potential conflicts may mean either that
such conflicts exist that they have failed to disclose, or that conflicts do not exist. Reviewers
must therefore also be asked to state explicitly whether conflicts do or do not exist.
Reviewers must not use knowledge of the work, before its publication, to further their own
interests.
Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal,
professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might judge. Other members
of the editorial staff, if they participate in editorial decisions, must provide editors with a
current description of their financial interests (as they might relate to editorial judgments) and
disqualify themselves from any decisions where they have a conflict of interest. Editorial staff
must not use the information gained through working with manuscripts for private gain.
Editors should avoid submitting to their own journal reports of original research to
which they have contributed as authors. If they do so, they should recuse themselves from
the editorial process, and delegate editorial decisions on those manuscripts to other
members of the editorial staff. Editors should publish regular disclosure statements about
potential conflicts of interests related to the commitments of journal staff.

Plagiarism Policy

1. Preamble
In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher
Education in Pakistan, the credit, respect, recognition of research and scholarly publications,
career development and financial gains are now linked with such original works
accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become
necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary
punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus or false complaints in
order to prevent victimization which may make researchers and scholars shy away from
research simply because of the fear of prosecution. A Plagiarism Policy has therefore
become necessary to create awareness, define various forms in which Plagiarism exhibits
itself, present a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the
extent of the offence and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints.
2. Definition
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as "taking and using
the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own". This, or various
similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be
used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to

ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical
norms, or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive
actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests
itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
“Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of
another author's paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference.
Copying elements of another author's paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not
common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the
source.
Verbatim copying portions of another author's paper or from reports by citing but not clearly
differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or
not citing the source correctly” [1].
"The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models /
algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases,
mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams,
graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images,
computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any
sort, posters, presentations and tracing." [2]
"Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one's
own copyrighted work without citing the original source." [1]
3. Explanation from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on the web describes and explains Plagiarism as "the
unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the
representation of them as one's own original work. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the
authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object itself is in question,
plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution. Within academia, plagiarism by
students, professors, or researchers is considered

academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure.
In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught
plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development
of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of
copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is different from copyright
infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they emphasize different
aspects of the transgression. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of the
copyright holder, which involves the loss of income and artistic control of the material when it
is used without the copyright holder's consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned
with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation. In the academic world,
plagiarism by students is a very serious academic offense which can result in punishments
such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level), or a
failing grade for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated
plagiarism, or for cases where a student has committed a severe type of plagiarism (e.g.
copying an entire article and submitting it as his / her own work), a student may be
suspended or expelled, and any academic degrees or awards may be revoked. For
professors and researchers, who are required to act as role models for their students,
plagiarism is a very serious offence, and is punishable by sanctions ranging from suspension
to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against
students, faculty members and staff are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees,
which students and faculty members have agreed to be bound by." [3]
Wikipedia also describes Self-plagiarism as "the re-use of significant, identical, or nearly
identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without
citing the original work. Typically, high public-interest texts are not a subject of self-
plagiarism; however, the authors should not violate copyright where applicable. "Public-
interest texts" include such material as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually
published in newspapers and magazines." [3]
4. Aim: The aim of this policy is to apprise students, teachers, researchers and staff about
Plagiarism and how it can be avoided. It is also aimed at discouraging Plagiarism by
regulating and authorising punitive actions against those found guilty of the act of Plagiarism.
5. Applicability: The policy is applicable to students, teachers, researchers and staff of all
institutions and organizations in Pakistan who are involved in writing or publishing their work.
In this context a "Student" is a person who, on the date of submission of his / her paper /
work is a registered student of any University or Degree Awarding Institution recognized by
Higher Education Commission (HEC). "Teachers and Researchers" include faculty
members or equivalent of the University / Organization or/of a constituent or affiliated college
or researchers of an organization and such other persons as may be declared to be so by
regulations. “Staff” is any employee of an organization involved in writing and publishing his
/ her work.
Any person listing his CV on the website or any current publication or applying for
any benefit on the basis of published or presented work that is plagiarized will be
liable to be punished as per prescribed rules.
6. Responsibility of the Institutions & Organizations: All institutions and organizations are
responsible to apprise their students, teachers, researchers and staff of the definition,
implications and resulting punishments in case, after due investigation, they are found guilty
of plagiarism. The institutions / organizations must acquaint their students, teachers,
researchers and staff with this policy and ensure that they are fully aware that all authors are
deemed to be individually and collectively responsible for the contents of papers published
by Journals / Publishers etc. Hence, it is the responsibility of each author, including the
coauthors, to ensure that papers submitted for publication should attain the highest ethical

standards with respect to plagiarism. To facilitate the institutions / organizations in creating
awareness about Plagiarism, a modified version of "Little Book of Plagiarism", a publication
of Leeds Metropolitan University is appended as "Annexure" to this policy. Any University or
Degree Awarding Institution which does not adopt and implement this policy will have its
degree derecognized by HEC.
7. Reporting: To inform HEC or respective Universities / Organizations of alleged
plagiarism, a complaint is to be made by email, post, fax or other means to HEC Quality
Assurance Division or respective Universities / Organizations. In case of lodging a complaint
in the form of a letter, copy may be sent to HEC. The following information is to be provided:
a) “Citation of the original paper or document or idea which was plagiarized, (paper title,
author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal, in which
published, with details). If the original paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical
report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to
ensure authenticity of the claim.
b) The citation of the alleged plagiarizing paper (paper title, author(s), publication title, month
and year of publication if available and the journal with details in which published). If the
paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant
is to provide as much information as possible to ensure proper investigation.
c) Copies of both papers if possible.
d) Any other information that would help HEC or respective Universities / Organizations to
efficiently resolve the claim.” [1]
e) Name, designation, organization, address, e-mail address and telephone number of the
complainant.
8. Investigation:
Upon receipt of an allegation of Plagiarism, the HEC Quality Assurance Division will request
the respective Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization to carry out investigation.
The complaints received through HEC or directly by a University / Organization will be dealt
with by the Universities / Organizations according to the procedures given below. The Vice
Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion of not taking any
action on anonymous complaints. For investigation of Plagiarism cases, the Vice Chancellor /
Rector / Head of Organization will have an obligation to:
a) Constitute a “Plagiarism Standing Committee” consisting of 3 senior faculty members, a
subject specialist in that particular field is to be co-opted, a senior student (only if a student is
being investigated upon) and a nominee of the HEC.The seniority of the members of
“Plagiarism Standing Committee” should be of a level keeping in view the seniority of the
individual being investigated upon and the nature and gravity of the offence.
b) Provide a guideline, prepared by HEC for the functioning of the "Plagiarism Standing
Committee", to all members of the Committee.
c) Provide clear terms of reference to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” for their
investigation.
d) The members of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” are to sign a confidentiality
statement that during the investigation they will, under no circumstances, disclose any
individual author's name, paper titles, referees, or any other personal or specific information
concerning the plagiarism complaint under investigation, nor shall they reveal the names of
the committee members.
e) Provide opportunity to the author / authors under investigation to justify the originality of
their concepts and research work. Similar opportunity will also be provided to the author
whose paper is deemed to have been Plagiarized and / or the complainant, to justify the
complaint.
f) Provide every opportunity to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” to use all foreseeable
means to investigate the plagiarism claim.

9. The Plagiarism Standing Committee shall then conduct the investigation. Depending on
the details of the claim, the investigation may include, but may not be limited to, any or all of
the following steps:
a) Manual and / or automated tests for content similarity [1].
b) Determination of the extent and quantum of significant material plagiarized.
c) Soliciting comments to the claim, from the Editor-in-Chief (of a journal) or Program Chair
(of conference proceedings) and referees of either or both papers.
d) Consultation with legal counsel. [1]
e) Consult / contact witnesses and record statements there-of if so required.
f) Consult / contact present and / or past employers of the authors.
10. The “Plagiarism Standing Committee” will submit its report with clear cut findings and
recommendations to the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization within a
specified period not exceeding sixty days. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the
Organization will have the discretion to implement the recommendations after approval
through the statutory process and take punitive action against the offender as per penalties
prescribed under this policy or to forward the report to HEC or his / her parent organization
for further action if outside their purview / jurisdiction.
Penalties for Plagiarism
11. Plagiarism is an intellectual crime. As such the penalties for plagiarism should not only
take into account the severity and recurrence of the offence, but also the intellectual standing
of the offender. This entails a gradual increase in punitive action with minimum punishment
for a first time offence by a student who copies a home work assignment to a maximum
punishment for a teacher/researcher/staff who attempts to present / publish, or actually
presents / publishes plagiarized material; as his own, in a conference / journal. Therefore, the
punishments for Plagiarism have been divided into two separate categories, i.e those for
"Teachers, Researchers and Staff" and those for the "Students". The groups have already
been defined in para 5 above.
(a) Penalties for Teachers, Researchers and Staff: When an act of plagiarism, as
described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the "Plagiarism Standing
Committee" in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE
PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Competent Authority of the Organization, to take any
one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the teacher, researcher
and / or staff found guilty of the offence:
(i) Major Penalty:
In cases where most of the paper (or key results) have been exactly copied from any
published work of other people without giving the reference to the original work, then (a) a
major penalty of dismissal from service needs to be prescribed, along with (b) the offender
may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research
organization, and (c) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) may be published in
the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-
Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(ii) Moderate Penalty:
In case where some paragraphs including some key results have been copied without
citation, then a moderate penalty involving any one or both of the following needs to be
imposed (a) demotion to the next lower grade, (b) the notification of “Black Listing” of the
author(s) which may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different
websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(iii) Minor Penalty:In case a few paragraphs have been copied from an external source
without giving reference of that work, then minor penalties need to be prescribed for a
specified period involving any one or more of the following: (a) warning, (b) freezing of all
research grants, (c) the promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped, for a

specified period and (d) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from
sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship,
fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the
“Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(b) Students: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to
have occurred, the "Plagiarism Standing Committee" in its recommendations, DEPENDING
UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Vice Chancellor /
Head of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary
action(s) against the student(s) found guilty of the offence:
(i) In the case of thesis the responsibility of plagiarism will be of the student and not of the
supervisor or members of the Supervisory Committee.
(ii) The offender may be expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining any
institution of Higher Education in Pakistan for a period as deemed appropriate by the
"Plagiarism Standing Committee”. A notice may be circulated among all academic institutions
and research organization to this effect.
(iii) The offender may be relegated to a lower class.
(iv) The offender may be given a failure grade in the subject.
(v) The offender may be fined an amount as deemed appropriate.
(vi) The offender may be given a written warning if the offence is minor and is committed for
the first time.
(vii) The degree of a student may be withdrawn if AT ANY TIME it is proven that he or she
has presented Plagiarized work in his / her MS, MPhil or PhD dissertation if the extent of
plagiarism comes under the category of major penalty as conveyed in Para 11(a-1).
(viii) The notification of the plagiarism by the author(s) may be published in the print media or
may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice Chancellor / Rector /
Head of the Organization.
(ix) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of
research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a
period as deemed appropriate by the "Plagiarism Standing Committee".
(x) Any other penalty deemed fit by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(c) Co-Authors/Declarations
1. Provided that a co-author has listed a paper in his/her resume and applied for a benefit
forthwith, any co-author is deemed to be equally responsible for any plagiarism committed in
a published paper presented to or published in a journal or presented at a conference.
2. All Journals in Pakistan must require ALL authors to sign a declaration that the material
presented in the creative work is not plagiarized (Sample Attached)
12. Additional Actions Required: In addition to the above punishments, the following
additional common actions must be taken if the offence of Plagiarism is established:
a) If the plagiarized paper is accessible on the web page its access will be removed. The
paper itself will be kept in the database for future research or legal purposes.
b) The author(s) will be asked to write a formal letter of apology to the authors of the Original
paper that was plagiarized, including an admission of plagiarism. Should the author(s) refuse
to comply then additional punishments as deemed fit may be recommended by the
"Plagiarism Standing Committee.

c) If the paper is submitted but not published yet, the paper will be rejected by the Editor-in-
Chief or the Program Chair without further revisions and without any further plagiarism
investigation conducted.[1]
However, Warning may be issued to the author/ co-author.
13. Appeal: As the penalties are severe, the affected person(s) will have the right to appeal
to the Chairman HEC / Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization for a review of
the findings or may submit a mercy petition within 30 days from the date of notification. Such
appeals / petitions will be disposed off within 60 days of receipt, by following the laid down
procedures regarding such appeals.
14. Penalty for Wrong Reporting / False Allegation: If the case of Plagiarism is not proved
and it is confirmed that a false allegation was lodged, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of
the Organization will inform the complainant’s Organization and will recommend disciplinary
action against the complainant, to be taken by his / her parent organization.


The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will entertain the manuscript from the all
the specialties of dentistry, allied specialties and basic dental sciences.
PUBLICATION CALANENDAR
The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will be published quarterly
INSTRUCTIONS FOR AUTHORS
1. EDITORIAL POLICY
JKCD is the official Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry. The journal is a peer-
reviewed, dedicated to the dissemination of new knowledge/ information on all sciences
relevant to dentistry, oral cavity and associated structures in health and disease. JKCD aims
to be the leading publication in its field and provides a forum for the exchange of information
about new and significant research in Dentistry in Pakistan and throughout the world. The
Journal will publish peer-reviewed research articles, clinical developments, clinical opinions
and treatments as well as other key issues of relevance to Dentistry. It also aims to motivate
the conduct and publication of original research in oral health sciences in Pakistan, to
provide a source of continuing dental education, and to circulate such information in Pakistan
and other parts of the world. The Journal would appeal to a substantial international
readership seeking to keep up-to-date with research and developments in oral health
sciences, with an emphasis on new knowledge and innovations. It would provide clinicians,
scientists and students of dentistry with a comprehensive periodical published twice a year,
publishing original research papers, reviews, evidence base clinical cases, short
communications, letters to the editor and guest editorials.
2- MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION
The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry follows the uniform requirements for
manuscripts submitted to Biomedical Journals as approved by the International Committee of
Medical Journal Editors as updated in Oct. 2004 and available at www.icmje.orgOnly those
manuscripts are accepted which have not been published previously or submitted elsewhere
for publication. Two hard copies and a soft copy (MS Word format) of manuscript, typed
double spaced on one side of A-4 size paper with at least one inch margins all around and all
pages numbered should be sent to “The Honorary Editor, JKCD, Khyber College of Dentistry,
University Campus, Peshawar, Khyber Pukhthunkhwa, Pakistan”. Tables and illustrations
should be typed and drawn on separate pages. A covering letter, containing the undertaking
(Annexure-1), certifying the originality of the work and that it is neither published nor
submitted for publication elsewhere, duly signed by the principal author should accompany
the manuscript. Authors from abroad can also submit their manuscript electronically to
“jkcd.y2010@gmail.com”. Such manuscripts along with tables and references must be sent
as a MS word document but graphics have to be attached as jpeg files.

3- FORMAT REQUIREMENTS
All Manuscripts of original research should contain the following sections:
a. Title page:
Page 1 of the manuscript should include the title of the article and the name(s) of the
authors with the sequence to appear in print, degrees, title/designation, name of the
department and institutional affiliation of each author. The person responsible for future
enquiry should be identified and his address for correspondence along with telephone
number and E-mail address, given. Acknowledgements to be included should also be given
on this page.
b. Abstracts:
Page 2 of the manuscripts should contain a maximum of 250 words as structured
abstract i.e. Objective(s), Materials and Methods, Results and Conclusion. Abstract for
evidence based clinical case and literature reviews need not be structured.
c. Key words:
A list of 3-6 key words should also be included at the bottom of the abstract page.
d. Abbreviations:
Standard abbreviations should be used only. Full word for each abbreviation should
be given, the first time it is used in the text. Avoid abbreviations in the Title and Abstract.
d. Introduction:
Summarize the rationale and purpose of the study. It should neither review the subject
extensively nor should it have data or conclusion. Give only pertinent references and clearly
state the working hypothesis.
e. Materials and Method:
Precisely describe how the study was carried out so that the reader can easily
comprehend the method used. Provide information about the sample (subjects, patients or
materials being studied) design of study and how it was executed. If a drug or material is
used, its generic name, dose and route of administration/ applications must be explained.
Indicate the statistical methods used and also specify any computer program used for
analysis of the data.
f. Results:
Results should be presented clearly as text, tables and illustrations. All the data given
in the tables and figures should not be repeated in the text. Only important observations
should be mention in the text, while reference to the table or figure number can be given for
less important findings.
g. Discussion
This should emphasize the present findings and its comparison with other relevant
studies. Do not repeat in detail the data or other material given in the introduction or results.
Point out the implication of the findings and the limitations of the study.

h. Conclusion(s)
Include a numeric listing of evidence based conclusions and should relate directly to
the aims and objectives of the study.
i. Tables:
Each of the tables should be on a separate page, must have a brief title, be on a
double space and should have an accompanying legend. Duplication of results given in
tables and in figures must be avoided.
j. Illustrations:
All graphics, drawings and photographs are labelled as figures and should be
consecutively numbered. Each illustration must be on a separate page and must have a
caption. In case of photographs, write the figure number and caption at the back of each
photograph.
k. References:
The references must be written in Vancouver style, double-spaced and numbered as
they appear inthe text. The total number of references must not exceed 40 for original article
and 100 for review article. Provide complete information for each reference, including names
and initials of all authors when they are six or less. If there are more than six authors, list the
first six followed by “et al”. The authors name(s) and initials are followed by the title of the
article, the name of the journal abbreviated according to the style followed in Index Medicus,
year of publication, journal volume and number of the first and last pages e.g. Bashir U,
Hassan A, Arshad N. Cleidocranial Dysplasia. J Pak Dent Assoc, 2005; 14(3): 177-80.
Reference for a chapter or part of a book should have author name(s) and initials, full title of
the chapter or part, name of the editor(s), complete title of the book, city address, publisher,
year of publication and number of the first and last pages e.g. Shafer WG, Hine MK, Levy
BM. Dental caries. A text book of oral pathology. 4th Ed. India: Saunders 1997; 406-11.
l. Ethics
When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures
followed were in accordance with the standards of institutional ethical committee on human
experimentation and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 1983. Do not use
patient’s names, initials, or hospital numbers especially in illustrative material.
m. Units of Measurements:
Systems International (SI) units to be preferred where possible. Conventional units
can be given in parenthesis.
n. Drugs Names:
Generic names of drugs are preferred. Where essential, the brand names can be
given in parenthesis.
o. Permission:
Material taken from other sources must be accompanied by written statement from
both the author and the publisher giving permission for reproduction.

MANUSCRIPT RECEIVING AND TRACKING SYSTEM
The authors are requested to send three copies of the manuscript. Manuscripts must
be accompanied by a covering letter signed by all co authors. This must include 1)
information on prior or duplicate publication or submission elsewhere of any part of the work
as defined earlier in this document; 2) a statement of financial or other relationships that
might lead to a conflict of interest; 3) a statement that the manuscript has been read and
approved by all the authors, that the requirements for authorship as stated earlier in this
document have been met, and that each author believes that the manuscript represents
honest work; and 4) the name, address, and telephone number of the corresponding author,
who is responsible for communicating with the other authors about revisions and final
approval of the proofs. The letter should give any additional information that may be helpful
to the editor, such as the type of article in the particular journal that the manuscript
represents and whether the author(s) would be willing to meet the cost of reproducing colour
illustrations. The manuscript must be accompanied by copies of any permission to reproduce
published material, to use illustrations or report information about identifiable people, or to
name people for their contributions.
MANUSCRIPT PEER REVIEW SYSTEM
JKCD is a peer reviewed journal. All articles on receipt for publication are reviewed for
originality, relevance, statistical methods, significance, adequacy of documentation, reader
interest and composition. Manuscripts not submitted according to the instructions will be
returned to the author for correction prior to beginning the peer review process. All
manuscripts considered suitable for review are evaluated by a minimum of two members of
editorial board. The manuscript is then sent to two or more than two reviewers who may take
2-3 weeks to review the manuscript. Necessary comments of reviewers are conveyed back
to the authors. After necessary revision by the authors, the manuscripts are presented to the
editorial board for final decision about its publication The ultimate authority to accept or reject
the manuscript rests with\ the Editor. Revised manuscripts are judged on the adequacy of
responses to suggestions and criticisms made during the initial review. All accepted
manuscripts are subject to editing for scientific accuracy and clarity by the office of the Editor.
When the manuscripts is deemed fit for publication, letter of acceptance is issued to the
author. No article is rejected unless similar comments are received from at least two
reviewers. Rejected articles are returned back to authors.
Following is the policy regarding the roles of the reviewers.
a) To evaluate the manuscript critically and to make recommendation to the editor
regarding the suitability of the manuscript for publication in the Journal of Khyber
College of Dentistry.
b) To point out any potential conflict of interest.
c) Not to make derogatory remarks/comments about the manuscript and neither
communicate directly with the authors.
d) The editor will provide guidance to the reviewer regarding the evaluation by telephone,
fax, email and courier.
e) If the reviewer does not complete review on a timely basis, the editor will proceed with
the evaluation.
JOURNAL PRINTING SYSTEM

The Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry will be printed under the authority of the
publisher by Khyber Printers, Small Industrial State, Kohat Road, Peshawar, Pakistan. Tel:
(091) 2325196. Declaration of the printer and ISSN Number are attached as Annexure 2 and
3. Specification of the journal are as below:
 Title page- colour, art card 310 gram with A4 size.
 Normal pages- multicolour, mat paper 115 gram A4 size
PUBLICATION AND DISTRIBUTION
Journal of Khyber College of Dentistry is published on controlled circulation basis and
distributed among all the principal authors, co authors, members of the advisory board,
editorial board, peer reviewers, principals of all dental colleges, libraries of all dental
colleges, PMDC, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Pakistan. The copies of the journal
will be distributed by hand and through courier services.
The copyright is owned by JKCD. JKCD has the right to reproduce, transmit, publish
or distribute the contribution in the journal or otherwise. The publisher and the member(s) of
the editorial board cannot be held responsible for errors or for any consequences arising
from the use of the information contained in this journal.
LINKS WITH OTHER SIMILLAR ORGANIZATION
ISSN (2220-2633)
ISSNe (2307-3934)
WHO Index Medicus [ PD.3/10(IMMER/PAK]
Recognised by PMDC ( Index Pakistan Number IP/0063)
AUDIT POLICY OF THE JOURNAL
Internal audit will be carried out by the account and audit department of Khyber College of
Dentistry, Peshawar. External audit will be conducted by the audit team of Finance
Department, Government of Khyber Pukhtunkhawa.
CONFLICT RESOLUTION POLICY
Editorial board will follow the journal guidelines of Pakistan Medical and Dental
Council regarding conflict resolution policy. These guidelines are reproduced below. Conflict
of interest for a given manuscript exists when a participant in the peer review and publication
process-author, reviewer, and editor-has ties to activities that could inappropriately influence
his or her judgment, whether or not judgment is in fact affected. Financial relationships with
industry (for example, through employment, consultancies, stock ownership, honoraria,
expert testimony), either directly or through immediate family, are usually considered to be
the most important conflicts of interest. However, conflicts can occur for other reasons, such
as personal relationships, academic competition, and intellectual passion.
Public trust in the peer review process and the credibility of published articles depend
in part on how well conflict of interest is handled during writing, peer review, and editorial
decision making. Bias can often be identified and eliminated by careful attention to the
scientific methods and conclusions of the work. Financial relationships and their effects are
less easily detected than other conflicts of interest. Participants in peer review and
publication should disclose their conflicting interests, and the information should be made
available so that others can judge their effects for themselves. Because readers may be less

able to detect bias in review articles and editorials than in reports of original research, some
journals do not accept reviews and editorials from authors with a conflict of interest.
All participants in the peer review and publication process must disclose all
relationships that could be viewed as presenting a potential conflict of interest. Disclosure of
these relationships is particularly important in connection with editorials and review articles,
because bias can be more difficult to detect in those publications than in reports of original
research. Editors may use information disclosed in conflict of interest and financial interest
statements as a basis for editorial decisions. Editors should publish this information if they
believe it will be important to readers in judging the manuscript.
Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Individual Authors' Commitments
When authors submit a manuscript, whether an article or a letter, they are responsible
for disclosing all financial and personal relationships between themselves and others that
might bias their work. To prevent ambiguity, authors must state explicitly whether potential
conflicts do or do not exist. Authors should do so in the manuscript on a conflict of interest
notification page that follows the title page, providing additional detail, if necessary, in the
accompanying cover letter. Investigators should disclose potential conflicts to study
participants, and should state in the manuscript whether they have done so.
Editors also need to decide when to publish information disclosed by authors about
potential conflicts. If doubt exists, it is best to err on the side of publication.
Potential Conflicts of Interest Related to Project Support
Increasingly, biomedical studies receive funding from commercial firms, private
foundations, and government. The conditions of this funding have the potential to bias and
otherwise discredit the research.
Scientists have an ethical obligation to submit creditable research results for
publication. As the persons directly responsible for their work, researchers therefore should
not enter into agreements that interfere with their access to the data or their ability to analyze
the data independently, to prepare manuscripts, and to publish them. Authors should
describe the role of the study sponsor(s), if any, in study design; in the collection, analysis,
and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report; and in the decision to submit the report
for publication. If the supporting source had no such involvement, the authors should so
state. Biases potentially introduced when sponsors are directly involved in research are
analogous to methodological biases of other sorts; some journals therefore choose to include
information about the sponsor's involvement in the methods section of the published paper.
If a study is funded by an agency with a proprietary or financial interest in the
outcome, editors may ask authors to sign a statement such as, ``I had full access to all of the
data in this study and I take complete responsibility for the integrity of the data and the
accuracy of the data analysis.'' Editors should be encouraged to review copies of the protocol
and/or contracts associated with project specific studies before accepting such studies for
publication. Editors may choose not to consider an article if a sponsor has asserted control
over the authors' right to publish.
Conflicts of Interest Related to Commitments of Editors, Journal Staff, or Reviewers
Editors should avoid selecting external peer reviewers with obvious potential conflicts
of interest, for example, those who work in the same department or institution as any of the
authors. Authors often provide editors with the names of persons they feel should not be

asked to review a manuscript because of potential conflicts of interest, usually professional.
When possible, authors should be asked to explain or justify their concerns; that information
is important to editors in deciding whether to honour such requests.
Reviewers must disclose to editors any conflicts of interest that could bias their
opinions of the manuscript, and they should disqualify themselves from reviewing specific
manuscripts if they believe such disqualification would be appropriate. As in the case of
authors, silence on the part of reviewers concerning potential conflicts may mean either that
such conflicts exist that they have failed to disclose, or that conflicts do not exist. Reviewers
must therefore also be asked to state explicitly whether conflicts do or do not exist.
Reviewers must not use knowledge of the work, before its publication, to further their own
interests.
Editors who make final decisions about manuscripts must have no personal,
professional, or financial involvement in any of the issues they might judge. Other members
of the editorial staff, if they participate in editorial decisions, must provide editors with a
current description of their financial interests (as they might relate to editorial judgments) and
disqualify themselves from any decisions where they have a conflict of interest. Editorial staff
must not use the information gained through working with manuscripts for private gain.
Editors should avoid submitting to their own journal reports of original research to
which they have contributed as authors. If they do so, they should recuse themselves from
the editorial process, and delegate editorial decisions on those manuscripts to other
members of the editorial staff. Editors should publish regular disclosure statements about
potential conflicts of interests related to the commitments of journal staff.

Plagiarism Policy

1. Preamble
In the wake of fundamental improvements being introduced in the system of Higher
Education in Pakistan, the credit, respect, recognition of research and scholarly publications,
career development and financial gains are now linked with such original works
accomplished without replicating the efforts of other researchers. It has therefore become
necessary that the menace of plagiarism is highlighted and curbed through exemplary
punitive actions. On the other hand, we must also guard against bogus or false complaints in
order to prevent victimization which may make researchers and scholars shy away from
research simply because of the fear of prosecution. A Plagiarism Policy has therefore
become necessary to create awareness, define various forms in which Plagiarism exhibits
itself, present a methodology of investigation, cater for punitive action proportional to the
extent of the offence and even address the issue of false or spurious complaints.
2. Definition
According to the Concise Oxford Dictionary, Plagiarism is defined as "taking and using
the thoughts, writings, and inventions of another person as one's own". This, or various
similar definitions found in recognized publications / documents, are very broad and can be
used to create awareness about Plagiarism but are not practical enough to apply in order to

ascertain guilt or innocence in specific cases. In order to establish the violation of ethical
norms, or academic or intellectual dishonesty resulting from Plagiarism and to take punitive
actions in this regard, it is necessary that the variety of forms in which Plagiarism manifests
itself are known. These include but are not limited to the following:
“Verbatim copying, near-verbatim copying, or purposely paraphrasing portions of
another author's paper or unpublished report without citing the exact reference.
Copying elements of another author's paper, such as equations or illustrations that are not
common knowledge, or copying or purposely paraphrasing sentences without citing the
source.
Verbatim copying portions of another author's paper or from reports by citing but not clearly
differentiating what text has been copied (e.g. not applying quotation marks correctly) and /or
not citing the source correctly” [1].
"The unacknowledged use of computer programs, mathematical / computer models /
algorithms, computer software in all forms, macros, spreadsheets, web pages, databases,
mathematical deviations and calculations, designs / models / displays of any sort, diagrams,
graphs, tables, drawings, works of art of any sort, fine art pieces or artifacts, digital images,
computer-aided design drawings, GIS files, photographs, maps, music / composition of any
sort, posters, presentations and tracing." [2]
"Self-plagiarism, that is, the verbatim or near-verbatim re-use of significant portions of one's
own copyrighted work without citing the original source." [1]
3. Explanation from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia on the web describes and explains Plagiarism as "the
unauthorized use or close imitation of the language and thoughts of another author and the
representation of them as one's own original work. Unlike cases of forgery, in which the
authenticity of the writing, document, or some other kind of object itself is in question,
plagiarism is concerned with the issue of false attribution. Within academia, plagiarism by
students, professors, or researchers is considered

academic dishonesty or academic fraud and offenders are subject to academic censure.
In journalism, plagiarism is considered a breach of journalistic ethics, and reporters caught
plagiarizing typically face disciplinary measures ranging from suspension to termination.
While plagiarism in scholarship and journalism has a centuries-old history, the development
of the Internet, where articles appear as electronic text, has made the physical act of
copying the work of others much easier. Plagiarism is different from copyright
infringement. While both terms may apply to a particular act, they emphasize different
aspects of the transgression. Copyright infringement is a violation of the rights of the
copyright holder, which involves the loss of income and artistic control of the material when it
is used without the copyright holder's consent. On the other hand, plagiarism is concerned
with the unearned increment to the plagiarizing author's reputation. In the academic world,
plagiarism by students is a very serious academic offense which can result in punishments
such as a failing grade on the particular assignment (typically at the high school level), or a
failing grade for the course (typically at the college or university level). For cases of repeated
plagiarism, or for cases where a student has committed a severe type of plagiarism (e.g.
copying an entire article and submitting it as his / her own work), a student may be
suspended or expelled, and any academic degrees or awards may be revoked. For
professors and researchers, who are required to act as role models for their students,
plagiarism is a very serious offence, and is punishable by sanctions ranging from suspension
to termination, along with the loss of credibility and integrity. Charges of plagiarism against
students, faculty members and staff are typically heard by internal disciplinary committees,
which students and faculty members have agreed to be bound by." [3]
Wikipedia also describes Self-plagiarism as "the re-use of significant, identical, or nearly
identical portions of one’s own work without acknowledging that one is doing so or without
citing the original work. Typically, high public-interest texts are not a subject of self-
plagiarism; however, the authors should not violate copyright where applicable. "Public-
interest texts" include such material as social, professional, and cultural opinions usually
published in newspapers and magazines." [3]
4. Aim: The aim of this policy is to apprise students, teachers, researchers and staff about
Plagiarism and how it can be avoided. It is also aimed at discouraging Plagiarism by
regulating and authorising punitive actions against those found guilty of the act of Plagiarism.
5. Applicability: The policy is applicable to students, teachers, researchers and staff of all
institutions and organizations in Pakistan who are involved in writing or publishing their work.
In this context a "Student" is a person who, on the date of submission of his / her paper /
work is a registered student of any University or Degree Awarding Institution recognized by
Higher Education Commission (HEC). "Teachers and Researchers" include faculty
members or equivalent of the University / Organization or/of a constituent or affiliated college
or researchers of an organization and such other persons as may be declared to be so by
regulations. “Staff” is any employee of an organization involved in writing and publishing his
/ her work.
Any person listing his CV on the website or any current publication or applying for
any benefit on the basis of published or presented work that is plagiarized will be
liable to be punished as per prescribed rules.
6. Responsibility of the Institutions & Organizations: All institutions and organizations are
responsible to apprise their students, teachers, researchers and staff of the definition,
implications and resulting punishments in case, after due investigation, they are found guilty
of plagiarism. The institutions / organizations must acquaint their students, teachers,
researchers and staff with this policy and ensure that they are fully aware that all authors are
deemed to be individually and collectively responsible for the contents of papers published
by Journals / Publishers etc. Hence, it is the responsibility of each author, including the
coauthors, to ensure that papers submitted for publication should attain the highest ethical

standards with respect to plagiarism. To facilitate the institutions / organizations in creating
awareness about Plagiarism, a modified version of "Little Book of Plagiarism", a publication
of Leeds Metropolitan University is appended as "Annexure" to this policy. Any University or
Degree Awarding Institution which does not adopt and implement this policy will have its
degree derecognized by HEC.
7. Reporting: To inform HEC or respective Universities / Organizations of alleged
plagiarism, a complaint is to be made by email, post, fax or other means to HEC Quality
Assurance Division or respective Universities / Organizations. In case of lodging a complaint
in the form of a letter, copy may be sent to HEC. The following information is to be provided:
a) “Citation of the original paper or document or idea which was plagiarized, (paper title,
author(s), publication title, month and year of publication if available and the journal, in which
published, with details). If the original paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical
report, an on-line paper), the complainant is to provide as much information as possible to
ensure authenticity of the claim.
b) The citation of the alleged plagiarizing paper (paper title, author(s), publication title, month
and year of publication if available and the journal with details in which published). If the
paper is unpublished (e.g. an institutional technical report, an on-line paper), the complainant
is to provide as much information as possible to ensure proper investigation.
c) Copies of both papers if possible.
d) Any other information that would help HEC or respective Universities / Organizations to
efficiently resolve the claim.” [1]
e) Name, designation, organization, address, e-mail address and telephone number of the
complainant.
8. Investigation:
Upon receipt of an allegation of Plagiarism, the HEC Quality Assurance Division will request
the respective Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization to carry out investigation.
The complaints received through HEC or directly by a University / Organization will be dealt
with by the Universities / Organizations according to the procedures given below. The Vice
Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization will have the discretion of not taking any
action on anonymous complaints. For investigation of Plagiarism cases, the Vice Chancellor /
Rector / Head of Organization will have an obligation to:
a) Constitute a “Plagiarism Standing Committee” consisting of 3 senior faculty members, a
subject specialist in that particular field is to be co-opted, a senior student (only if a student is
being investigated upon) and a nominee of the HEC.The seniority of the members of
“Plagiarism Standing Committee” should be of a level keeping in view the seniority of the
individual being investigated upon and the nature and gravity of the offence.
b) Provide a guideline, prepared by HEC for the functioning of the "Plagiarism Standing
Committee", to all members of the Committee.
c) Provide clear terms of reference to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” for their
investigation.
d) The members of the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” are to sign a confidentiality
statement that during the investigation they will, under no circumstances, disclose any
individual author's name, paper titles, referees, or any other personal or specific information
concerning the plagiarism complaint under investigation, nor shall they reveal the names of
the committee members.
e) Provide opportunity to the author / authors under investigation to justify the originality of
their concepts and research work. Similar opportunity will also be provided to the author
whose paper is deemed to have been Plagiarized and / or the complainant, to justify the
complaint.
f) Provide every opportunity to the “Plagiarism Standing Committee” to use all foreseeable
means to investigate the plagiarism claim.

9. The Plagiarism Standing Committee shall then conduct the investigation. Depending on
the details of the claim, the investigation may include, but may not be limited to, any or all of
the following steps:
a) Manual and / or automated tests for content similarity [1].
b) Determination of the extent and quantum of significant material plagiarized.
c) Soliciting comments to the claim, from the Editor-in-Chief (of a journal) or Program Chair
(of conference proceedings) and referees of either or both papers.
d) Consultation with legal counsel. [1]
e) Consult / contact witnesses and record statements there-of if so required.
f) Consult / contact present and / or past employers of the authors.
10. The “Plagiarism Standing Committee” will submit its report with clear cut findings and
recommendations to the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization within a
specified period not exceeding sixty days. The Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the
Organization will have the discretion to implement the recommendations after approval
through the statutory process and take punitive action against the offender as per penalties
prescribed under this policy or to forward the report to HEC or his / her parent organization
for further action if outside their purview / jurisdiction.
Penalties for Plagiarism
11. Plagiarism is an intellectual crime. As such the penalties for plagiarism should not only
take into account the severity and recurrence of the offence, but also the intellectual standing
of the offender. This entails a gradual increase in punitive action with minimum punishment
for a first time offence by a student who copies a home work assignment to a maximum
punishment for a teacher/researcher/staff who attempts to present / publish, or actually
presents / publishes plagiarized material; as his own, in a conference / journal. Therefore, the
punishments for Plagiarism have been divided into two separate categories, i.e those for
"Teachers, Researchers and Staff" and those for the "Students". The groups have already
been defined in para 5 above.
(a) Penalties for Teachers, Researchers and Staff: When an act of plagiarism, as
described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to have occurred, the "Plagiarism Standing
Committee" in its recommendations, DEPENDING UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE
PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Competent Authority of the Organization, to take any
one or a combination of the following disciplinary action(s) against the teacher, researcher
and / or staff found guilty of the offence:
(i) Major Penalty:
In cases where most of the paper (or key results) have been exactly copied from any
published work of other people without giving the reference to the original work, then (a) a
major penalty of dismissal from service needs to be prescribed, along with (b) the offender
may be “Black Listed” and may NOT be eligible for employment in any academic / research
organization, and (c) the notification of “Black Listing” of the author(s) may be published in
the print media or may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice-
Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(ii) Moderate Penalty:
In case where some paragraphs including some key results have been copied without
citation, then a moderate penalty involving any one or both of the following needs to be
imposed (a) demotion to the next lower grade, (b) the notification of “Black Listing” of the
author(s) which may be published in the print media or may be publicized on different
websites at the discretion of the Vice-Chancellor / Rector / Head of the organization.
(iii) Minor Penalty:In case a few paragraphs have been copied from an external source
without giving reference of that work, then minor penalties need to be prescribed for a
specified period involving any one or more of the following: (a) warning, (b) freezing of all
research grants, (c) the promotions/annual increments of the offender may be stopped, for a

specified period and (d) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from
sponsorship of research funding, travel grant, supervision of Ph.D. students, scholarship,
fellowship or any other funded program for a period as deemed appropriate by the
“Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(b) Students: When an act of plagiarism, as described earlier in paras 2 and 3, is found to
have occurred, the "Plagiarism Standing Committee" in its recommendations, DEPENDING
UPON THE SERIOUSNESS OF THE PROVEN OFFENCE, will advise the Vice Chancellor /
Head of the Organization, to take any one or a combination of the following disciplinary
action(s) against the student(s) found guilty of the offence:
(i) In the case of thesis the responsibility of plagiarism will be of the student and not of the
supervisor or members of the Supervisory Committee.
(ii) The offender may be expelled/ rusticated from the University and from joining any
institution of Higher Education in Pakistan for a period as deemed appropriate by the
"Plagiarism Standing Committee”. A notice may be circulated among all academic institutions
and research organization to this effect.
(iii) The offender may be relegated to a lower class.
(iv) The offender may be given a failure grade in the subject.
(v) The offender may be fined an amount as deemed appropriate.
(vi) The offender may be given a written warning if the offence is minor and is committed for
the first time.
(vii) The degree of a student may be withdrawn if AT ANY TIME it is proven that he or she
has presented Plagiarized work in his / her MS, MPhil or PhD dissertation if the extent of
plagiarism comes under the category of major penalty as conveyed in Para 11(a-1).
(viii) The notification of the plagiarism by the author(s) may be published in the print media or
may be publicized on different websites at the discretion of the Vice Chancellor / Rector /
Head of the Organization.
(ix) HEC or the University / Organization may debar the offender from sponsorship of
research funding, travel grant, scholarship, fellowship or any other funded program for a
period as deemed appropriate by the "Plagiarism Standing Committee".
(x) Any other penalty deemed fit by the “Plagiarism Standing Committee”.
(c) Co-Authors/Declarations
1. Provided that a co-author has listed a paper in his/her resume and applied for a benefit
forthwith, any co-author is deemed to be equally responsible for any plagiarism committed in
a published paper presented to or published in a journal or presented at a conference.
2. All Journals in Pakistan must require ALL authors to sign a declaration that the material
presented in the creative work is not plagiarized (Sample Attached)
12. Additional Actions Required: In addition to the above punishments, the following
additional common actions must be taken if the offence of Plagiarism is established:
a) If the plagiarized paper is accessible on the web page its access will be removed. The
paper itself will be kept in the database for future research or legal purposes.
b) The author(s) will be asked to write a formal letter of apology to the authors of the Original
paper that was plagiarized, including an admission of plagiarism. Should the author(s) refuse
to comply then additional punishments as deemed fit may be recommended by the
"Plagiarism Standing Committee.

c) If the paper is submitted but not published yet, the paper will be rejected by the Editor-in-
Chief or the Program Chair without further revisions and without any further plagiarism
investigation conducted.[1]
However, Warning may be issued to the author/ co-author.
13. Appeal: As the penalties are severe, the affected person(s) will have the right to appeal
to the Chairman HEC / Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of the Organization for a review of
the findings or may submit a mercy petition within 30 days from the date of notification. Such
appeals / petitions will be disposed off within 60 days of receipt, by following the laid down
procedures regarding such appeals.
14. Penalty for Wrong Reporting / False Allegation: If the case of Plagiarism is not proved
and it is confirmed that a false allegation was lodged, the Vice Chancellor / Rector / Head of
the Organization will inform the complainant’s Organization and will recommend disciplinary
action against the complainant, to be taken by his / her parent organization.